first aid

Numerous numbers of small, medium and large accidents happen around us regularly. So, everyone must know, understand, get trained in all types of first aid by well experienced professionals. So that, on emergencies you may be a great help in greatly reducing the trauma, and saving the precious lives of your near and dear. So, here are few precious first aid awareness tips for few occasions which will be of great help to you and to your loved ones.

ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION OR RESUSCITATION: If a person has ceased to breathe, immediately place him on his back, on a firm surface if possible, and press the top of the head backward so as to extend the head. Pull the chin towards to make a clear airway. If patient is still not breathing, perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation immediately. Time saves life. To do this, open your mouth and take a deep breath. Pinch the patient's nostrils with your fingers, and then seal his mouth with your lips (keeping the head held back all the time). Blow into the patient's mouth until the chest rises, then remove your mouth and watch his chest deflate. Repeat this operation as long as is necessary at normal breathing rate, but give the four blows as rapidly as possible.

BLEEDING: Direct pressure on an open, clean wound will usually control the bleeding. This can be done by pressure of the fingers or hand, but if readily available use a sterile dressing with an adequate pad, and bandage firmly in position. A tourniquet should never be used. If it's a major bleeding, apply ice for 20 min. Don't massage the area. It's always best to call for assistance whenever available. If it's minor bleeding, wash the wound thoroughly for at least three minutes with soap and water. Rinse the wound. If the wound is in area that will get dirty, cover it with gauze or protective bandage for a few days, but change the gauze daily. For heavy bleeding, put continuous, direct pressure with palm of the hand to control bleeding. Wash the wound with warm water. Consult a doctor immediately.

NOSE BLEEDING: First have the person sit up with his head titled slightly forward. If he is wearing a tie or anything else around the neck, loosen it. Press against the side of the nostril that is bleeding. Press several times. If pressing the nostril does not stop the bleeding, put a cold wet cloth over the nose. Then use pressure on the nose again. Once bleeding has stopped, he should not blow his nose.

BURNS: If a limb is affected, immerse the part immediately in cold water to relieve the pain. Then cover the part (including any burned clothing) with a dry sterile dressing or freshly laundered material such as a tea cloth. If burns are severe, treat for shock and get medical aid as quickly as possible. Do not use ointments or oil dressing.

CHOKING: This is usually caused by food, or some foreign body, getting in to wind pipe and can often be cured by getting the patients to bend over and then thumping with the flat of the hand work tickle the back of the throat with finger tips in an attempt to make the patients cough or vomit. If neither method succeeds get medical help at once.

ELECTRIC SHOCK: If the patient is still in contact with electric equipment, and you cannot switch off the electricity, do not touch him unless protect by rubber soles or rubber gloves. Apply artificial respiration and treat for burns and shock as necessary.

POISONING: If someone is thought to have swallowed poison, send for medical help at once, even if no effects have appeared. Have the poison container ready to show the doctor. Corrosive acid or alkaline poison such as creosote, ammonia, caustic soda, strong carbolic and oxalic and other acids will all burn or stain lips and mouth. Give water at once, but not an emetic. If the poison is known to be an acid such as oxalic, nitric, or sulphuric acid, rinse the mouth with an alkali such as magnesia, chalk and water, whiting and water or even plaster from the ceiling. If the poison is an alkali, such as ammonia or caustic soda, give an acid drink such as vinegar or lemon juice in water. Slow pulse, pallor, sleepiness and in some cases pin-point pupils, are symptoms of an over-dose of narcotics such as sleeping tablets, give emetic and try to keep patient awake. For gas poisoning, give the patient fresh air, artificial respiration and warmth and send for a doctor.

EMETICS (drug causing vomiting): If the poison taken is known to be corrosive, acid or alkaline, or if there is any burning or staining of the mouth and lips, an emetic is dangerous and should not be given. For other poisons give two tablespoon of salt, or a tablespoon of mustard, in half pint of water.

SHOCK: Serious burns or injury always cause shock. The patient is pale, his skin cold and clammly, his breathing quick and irregular and his pulse fast. He should be lied down with head low and hips and legs raised a little. Keep him warm and if he conscious, give him a warm sweet drink-but no stimulants. Keep him quite and reassure him. Shock can also occur after quite minor accidents.

VOMITING BLOOD FROM THE STOMACH: Lay the casualty down with the feet and legs raised higher than the body. keep the casualty at a reasonable temperature. Do not overheat by applying too many blankets or hot water bottles - keep the casualty just warm, and do not let him shiver with cold. Do not give any food or liquid by mouth. The mouth may be washed put with water, but none must be swallowed. Send immediately for a doctor, or arrange for an ambulance to take the casualty to the hospital. If the casualty becomes unconscious, he must be immediately be turned on his side in the recovery position, but still keeping the feet and legs raised.

FOREIGN BODIES IN THE EYE: Lifting the upper eye lid over the lower will often bring the foreign body on to the lower lid from which it can then be removed, or making the eye water by rubbing the other eye or blowing the nose will sometimes help. If the object is clearly visible the torn and moisturized edge of a piece of soft paper can be used to remove it. Never use tweezers and never rub the injured eye. If the object appears to be embedded in the eyeball leave it for the doctor to remove.

ELECTRIC BURNS: Switch off the current and remove the plug before treatment casualty. If the casualty is lying in water, keep out of it yourself - moisture is an excellent conductor of electricity. For the same reason do not hold the casualty under the armpits. Check the casualty's breathing. The current may have passed through the chest, stopping the heart and stopping breathing. If so start the CPR. Continue the general treatment for burns.

NOSE BLEEDDING: Sit him up facing the breeze and head slightly forward. Ask him to breathe through the mouth and not to blow the nose. Apply a cold compress over the nose. The soft part of the nose may be pinched close with fingers for 10 mins. Cold applications on the back of the neck and forehead may help.

FAINTING: Lay him down and loosen the clothing around the chest and waist. Turn head to one side. The legs may be raised a little. Do not attempt to give any solids or liquids. On recovery a small quantity of drink may be given and allowed to sit up and move after rest.

SNAKE BITE: Rest victim in a comfortable position, do not let the person sleep/lie down. Remove any jewellery or tight fitting clothing. Quickly tie a light restricting tourniquet, or strips of cloth, both above and below the bite area a few inches away from the puncture/bite marks. Do not raise the injured limb, as that helps the venom to spread, immobilize it. Never cut the side of the bite, or try to suck or cauterize it. These remedies simply make condition worse. Monitor vital signs for symptoms of shock. Avoid food or liquid intake. Move to proper treatment facility immediately.

HEART ATTACK: If the victim is unconscious: Call a doctor. Encourage the victim to sit and stay calm. If the victim has medication to take in the event of a heart attack, he should take it immediately. Stay with the victim. Monitoring until help arrives. Proceed with steps for CPR(Cardio - pulmonary resuscitation) if needed. If unconscious, check for breathing and other signs of circulation to see if CPR is needed.

DROWNING: Clear the airway and determine, whether casualty is breathing and the heart pumping. If the heart and breathing have stopped, then you immediately start the CPR. If the casualty is just unconscious, then once removed from the water, he should be placed in the recovery position. A doctor or an ambulance should be sent for immediately.

ACUTE ASTHMA: In the acute attack, allow the casualty to sit up or be propped up with pillows and cushions, in a good clean atmosphere. Talk to him quietly and gently, to relax him. Allow casualty to use inhaler if he has one, according to the dose prescribed. Send for a doctor as soon as possible. Do not raise dust, by cleaning the room in readiness for the doctor. Do not allow flowers in the room. If oxygen is available, and only if you know, how to administrate it, give oxygen for periods of 5 minutes at a time, until the doctor orders, otherwise.

CHOKING (age 1 or older): Step behind the choking victim. Wrap your arms around the victim's mid-section. Make a fist with one hand and place the thumb side on the victim's abdomen, between the navel and the bottom of the rib cage. Place other hand over the top of the fist. Thrust upward into the abdomen with the hands only, avoiding the rib cage, until the object is expelled. It's always a wise precaution, for victim to visit a physician after maneuver has been performed.


ENERAL: If you are in doubt the treatment, DO NOT DO anything. You may do more harm. Keep an emergency list of numbers by the phone. The police, ambulance, doctor, hospital all should be included. Keep a list of all medications you and your family take, including their dosage. In an emergency, if you are not in a position to give information, it should be easily accessed. This could prevent, serious drug interactions. Make a list of allergies, especially drug, if any. Keep a well-stocked first aid kit at home, at work and in your car, to handle everything from blisters, to cuts to, headaches.

Anything may happen to anybody, anywhere, at anytime. At above only few first aid procedures are mentioned. Many others, you have to learn from well trained professionals. So, everybody should know the first aid. Every home, every office, shop, industry, establishment, vehicle should have first aid box compulsorily. You have to upgrade, replace first aid materials, time-to-time. Even it is advisable, to have minimum first aid materials, in your baggage while on journey. Every one must understand, train self and help near and dear, at the time of emergency, reduce their trauma and save their precious lives. People who are interested in, can contact Red Cross and St. Jones Ambulance association, who are conducting professional first aid programs, in different states.

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